General Resources and Tools


IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum

The International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) has developed a spectrum to help groups define the public’s role in any public participation process. The IAP2 Spectrum is quickly becoming an international standard.

The IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum is designed to assist with the selection of the level of participation that defines the public's role in any community engagement program. The Spectrum shows that differing levels of participation are legitimate depending on the goals, time frames, resources and levels of concern in the decision to be made.

However, and most importantly, the Spectrum sets out the promise being made to the public at each participation level. The Spectrum is widely used and is quoted in most community engagement manuals.

Website: International Association for Public Participation

Spectrum diagram: IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum