Understanding the Value of Backbone Organisations in Collective Impact
Effective backbone support is a critical condition for collective impact. This article suggest that if you don't have effective backbone support then this is the number one reason that collective impact initiatives fail.
The research presented in this article indicates that "across organizations, the value of backbone support was commonly viewed as unmistakable; individual partners could not do the work of collective impact without it. In addition, backbone leaders must possess certain key characteristics that make them effective in the complex collective impact environment."
Resource: Understanding the Value of Backbone Organisations in Collective Impact: Stanford Social Innovation Review